RC37 - Rethinking Political Development

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08Mar 2015

Rethinking Democratization: Consensus Building for Results

Keynote Address on “Rethinking Democratization: Consensus Building for Results” By Zillur R. Khan Chairman, RC 37, International Political Science Association (IPSA), http://rc37.ipsa.org Professor Emeritus, University of Wisconsin, and Adjunct Professor, Rollins College, USA; Distinguished Fellow, PRI, Bangladesh, and President, Bangladesh Foundation, www.bangladesh-foundation.org

Over the centuries Democracy has become a better form of government than others, in spite of its complexities and setbacks in different countries. In shaping a stable and secured governing system humans have often chosen leaders capable of advancing public interests. Here I seek to utilize the Aristotelian framework to rethink democratization, focusing on justice in advancing public interest by balancing power-cum- authority with legitimacy. John Rawls, the most respected political philosopher of the 20th century, echoing Aristotle defines justice as basic fairness in multidimensional interactions between humans and their institutions. The purpose of such varied interactions is to balance democracy with a striving for security (John Rawls, 2003:3-102.). Implicit in it is a social contract inspired by the fairness principle which contributes to societal stability. A consensus building process through “Dialogue”, the basis of civilization as Thucedydes underscored in his classic History of Pelopennesian War could evolve through public-private policy forums and projects jointly sponsored by government, professional-occupational and civil society groups. For sustainable development through consensus building other ever-expanding electronic outlets could also be strategized to help reduce the gap between security and freedom. Such engagements should facilitate the implementation of policies, relatively perceived as corruption-free and fair. First, Bangladesh is unique in different respects. It is the third largest Muslim Majority nation, but its origin is not rooted in any religious ideology. History bears witness that the struggle for justice in preserving the identity and culture of Bengalis culminated in a successful people’s war against Injustice by internal colonialism of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan. Second, it is a highly homogenous nation without the conflict generating issues of tribes, clans, and religious schism, which have been adversely affecting peace and stability of most other Muslim majority nations. This is a cultural advantage the leadership of Bangladesh must utilize through a consensus building process in promoting a sustainable democratic governance. Third, justice is the glue that binds the people for advancement. For Bangladesh this glue needs to be strengthened. In the classical definition put forth by Socrates in Plato’s Republic Justice consists in giving everyone his due, which still holds true. Particularly on this historic day of March 7, Sheikh Mujibur Rahman must be given his due as the founding father of Bangladesh, which has been rated to become one of the eleven top emerging nations of the world. His ideals of nationalism: pride in one’s culture and identity; democracy: majority rule but protecting minority rights to advance Bengali nationalism; secularism: (inclusive rather than detached) respect all religions in advancing national interests through spontaneous participation of all in democracy; and socialism: without prejudicing any religion for equitable allocation and distribution of national wealth would certainly advance the greater interests of Bangladesh. Fourth, in order to assure the main opposition party a meaningful role in parliamentary deliberations, an important institutional change could be considered through a “Shadow Cabinet” model, ensuring the participation the main opposition party in governance. Fifth, without the involvement of all of the stakeholders, the “Winner-Takes-All” (WTA) electoral system has resulted in boycotting parliamentary deliberations by the opposition, undermining the democratizing process. As a starting point, a change in the electoral system may be tried in randomly chosen constituencies, replacing WTA with proportional representation (PR) whereby allocation of parliamentary seats will reflect the percentage of votes earned by contesting political parties in the general election. This could help clarify the fairness principle in both representational and electoral justice. Japan has successfully combined WTA with PR in its Lower House (Diet) of Parliament. Sixth, the ruling party must realize the issue of political legitimacy when the second largest party chose not to participate in the last general election, resulting in more than fifty percent seats of Parliament filled uncontested before the general election. Rethinking democratization demands that the voter mandate given in the landslide victory of the ruling party in 2008 election should be fulfilled. What was that mandate? Justice to the “Absent” through War Crimes Trials, corruption fighting, consensus building for sustainable development, which in voles infrastructal reforms needed to hold a violence free and fair elections in which all eligible voters will be motivated to vote. Seventh, violent extremists must be contained using the iron hand of the rule of law. As well, a broad based education system must be implemented focusing on religious tolerance and mutual respect. Under tremendous pressure from the Bangladesh civil society and political leaders of most political parties following terrorist acts committed by militant religious extremists during 2004-6, Maulanas affiliated with government Madrassas issued a religious statement based on the Koranic verse which forbids killing of innocent persons in the name of Jihad. Such a rejection of the Jihadist terrorists drastically undermined their support among the God fearing people, resulting in quick detection, arrests and trials of most Jihadist masterminds during 2005-006. Now is the time for another consensus building “Fatwa”, reinforcing such values of Islam as tolerance, respect for other religions, truthfulness and the higher Jihad (Jihad-al-Akbar)---the struggle to become a better Muslim by self improvement and helping others. This would help contain violent religious extremism. As well, implementing curricular reforms proposed by Dr. Muhammad Kudrat-e-Khuda in 1973 could be vital in transforming the mindset of Madrassa students, particularly Qaomi Madrassas financed by oil-rich Wahhabis of the Middle East. It would certainly help to broaden their horizons and appreciate democratic values of mutual tolerance of opposing ideas, accommodation and compromises in search of common grounds for problem solving and conflict resolution. This would make them more competitive in the job market. It would also help neutralize their opposition to womens' empowerrment. Lastly, political prties need to democratize themselves internally through elections at every level. And aspiring party candidates should first face their constituents in primary elections for their respective party nominations. Following successful nominations they should be expected to clarify their positions on various issues and problems by engaging in dialogues and deliberations. The following is a sample of issues they could deliberate among themselves, and then share the results via radio, TV and other electronic media. It would promote transparency and accountability needed for any democratizing process. • For institutional checks and balances on power, should the Parliament have two houses, with one checking any excesses of the other? • Considering the size of population, seventh largest in the world, should Bangladesh increase the size of representation in Parliament, say 500 in the Lower House (Assembly) and 100 in the Upper House (Senate)? • Should a coalition government formula be adopted through proportional representation where each coalition partner could exert checks on others? • Should issues of national interest be put on referendum to be voted in special elections? • Considering the deep mistrust between the two largest political parties, should the next general election be conducted under an elected interim government composed of elected leaders from two largest parties with their top leaders serving as co-chairs? • How to empower the National Election Commission to ensure a free and fair election? • How should the constitutionally mandated institution of Ombudsman be implemented? • To ensure unobstructed communication between public and private sectors, should representatives from professional-occupational organizations be allowed to participate in parliamentary and bureaucratic deliberations, respectively at the committee and department levels? There is tremendous potential in Bangladesh. In spite of recent political dysfunction and violence Bangladesh has the distinct privilege of leading both India and Pakistan on Human Development, particularly in life expectancy, infant mortality per 1000, under age 5 deaths, maternal death per 1000 live births, infant immunization, and female literacy. The ball, now, is in the court of the political leaders. A viable socio-political-economic alternative to the current situation could emerge internally when the political community and the civil society make a deep commitment to public interest. Paraphrasing Plato, one could assert that “good” lies in striving for the “ideal”, knowing full well that the ideal may never be reached. But the efforts to find a common ground stand a better chance of achieving a mutually acceptable compromise in the greater interest of a highly promising nation of the 21st century.

02Feb 2015

IPSA News_Award Session-Global South Award

AS-GSA.jpg

01Feb 2015

Award Session-Global South Award

Award_Session---Global_South_Award-P1.jpg (Dr. Khan Presiding over the Global South Award Session of IPSA World Congress in Montreal, Canada, 2014.)

Award_Session---Global_South_Award-P4.jpg (Dr. Khan Presiding over the Global South Award Session of IPSA World Congress in Montreal, Canada, 2014.)

Award_Session---Global_South_Award-P6.jpg (Dr. Khan Presiding over the Global South Award Session of IPSA World Congress in Montreal, Canada, 2014.)

Award_Session---Global_South_Award-P8.jpg (Dr. Khan Presiding over the Global South Award Session of IPSA World Congress in Montreal, Canada, 2014.)

28Jan 2015

Appreciation to Participants of Joint Workshop in Bangladesh Feb 1-2, 2014

Dear Participants of Dhaka IPSA Regional Workshop/Conference, Please accept my belated appreciation for making the IPSA Regional Conference in Bangladesh, Feb. 1-2, 2014, a success. It could not have happened without your commitment to take active part in the Workshop and engaging in thoughtful deliberations. I applaud Drs. Zaidi Sattar, Sadiq Ahmed and Ahsan Mansur of Policy Research Institute, and Ambassadors Farooq Sobhan and Humayun Kabir of Bangladesh Enterprise Institute, for jointly hosting the Workshop on behalf of their Institutes. And I deeply appreciate the warmth and hospitality of Ambassador Rashed Ahmed and Mrs. Nilufer Ahmed for a sumptuous Dinner in their home for all participants after a demanding 7 hr. Workshop from 9:30 am to 5:00 pm on February 1, 2014. I give a special vote of thanks to paper presenters from abroad: Professor and Dr. Theodore Wright, Professor Emeritus of SUNY and his physician wife; Professor Mark Farha of Georgetown University; Professor Yan Vaslavskiy of Moscow State University (Institute of International Relations); Professor C.P. Barthwal, Former Vice Chancellor, Kumaun University, India; Dr. Tazeen Murshid, Center for Development Research and Cooperation, Belgium; Ms. Rana Tiwari of Rana Tiwari Law Offices, USA; Professor Upendra Choudhury of Aligarh Muslim University, India; Mr. Hassan Mneimneh of German Marshall Fund, USA, and Doctoral Candidate Abdul Gaffar of JN University, India. I thank the IPSA Travel Grants Committee for supporting Inter-World Congress Workshops/Conferences organized by my Research Committee in 2007 (Bangladesh), 2010(Bangladesh), 2011(USA) and 2014(Bangladesh). Thank you Ms. Claude Berlinguette (Asst. to the Secretary General, IPSA) for easing the partial travel grants process for the last Workshop/Regional Conference in Dhaka.

I heartily thank a number of current and former public policy makers/implementers of Bangladesh who made time to participate in the inaugural and concluding sessions of the Workshop. I am particularly thankful to Professor Rehman Sobhan, founder of the Center for Policy Dialogue (CPD) and former Economic Adviser of Interim Government of Bangladesh, and Honorable Dr. Mashiur Rahman, Economic Advisor to the Prime Minister of Bangladesh, who respectively inaugurated the 1st and 2nd Day of Dhaka IPSA Workshop. Thanks to Ambassador Rashed Ahmed, former UN Chief of Mission in Kosovo, for an insightful review of my keynote paper. My special thanks to Ambassador Farooq Sobhan for chairing the inaugural session of the Dhaka IPSA Workshop, and my former student, Ambassador Humayun Kabir, who made me proud about the way he chaired the concluding panel of the two-day IPSA Workshop. I am thankful to Dr. Mizanur Rahman Shelley, Chairman, Center for Development Research-Bangladesh (CDRB), who has been a Cabinet Member in charge of Information of the Government of Bangladesh, for chairing a panel on Political-Territorial Identity and Political Development at the Two-Day Dhaka IPSA Regional Workshop/Conference. I am particularly thankful to my old friend, Mr. Enam Ahmed Choudhury, Advisor to the former Leader of Opposition (former Chair of Privatization Commission with the rank of cabinet member), to serve on the Roundtable titled Social Evaluation of Democracy: The Consensus Building Process, so ably moderated by Dr. Meghna Guhathakurta, Executive Director of Research Initiative-Bangladesh (RIB). Dr. Tazeen Murshid of Center for Development Research and Cooperation, Belgium, and Dr. Badiul Alam Majumdar of SHUJON enriched the Roundtable with their thought provoking ideas.

Finally, papers and commentaries presented by local participants, such as Dr. Ameena Mohsin, Ms. Maneeza Hossain, Mr. Masud Khan and Barrister Anita Ghazi provided a sound base of the IPSA Workshop/Regional Conference in Dhaka during February 1-2, 2014. Last but not the least; I thank Faiz Sobhan for helping international participants with the VISA process. Nazim, Zeenat, Shantila, Mijan and Tahera, I do appreciate your help with logistics for the Workshop.

Dr. Zillur R. Khan Chair, RC 37, IPSA (http://rc37.ipsa.org) Professor Emeritus, University of Wisconsin and Adjunct Professor, Rollins College, USA Distinguished Fellow, Policy Research Institute (PRI), Bangladesh President, Bangladesh Foundation, USA (www.bangladesh-foundation.org)

28Jan 2015

Programme Schedule of Joint Workshop in Bangladesh Feb 1-2, 2014

International Political Science Association (IPSA) Joint IPSA Regional Conference in Bangladesh organized by Dr. Zillur R. Khan, Chair of IPSA Research Committee on Rethinking Political Development Jointly Hosted by Policy Research Institute (PRI) and Bangladesh Enterprise Institute (BEI), to be held on February 1-2, 2014, at PRI Express House, House 16 (4th Floor), Road 10/A, Block F, Banani (Next to Sajna Restaurant), Dhaka-1213 You are cordially invited to participate in the theme of the Conference: Rethinking Political Development: Cultures, Civilizations and Identity Professor Rehman Sobhan: Chief Guest (February 01, 2014) Chairman, Center for Policy Dialogue (CPD), Former Economic Adviser to the Interim Government of Bangladesh

Dr. Masihur Rahman: Chief Guest (February 02, 2014) Economic Adviser to the Prime Minister, Government of Bangladesh

Keynote Address: Dr. Zillur R. Khan Chair, RC 37, IPSA, Professor Emeritus, University of Wisconsin and Adjunct Professor Rollins College, USA; Distinguished Fellow, PRI, Bangladesh Your presence will surely add substance to the event

Ambassador Farooq Sobhan, Dr. Ahsan H. Mansur President, BEI, Bangladesh Executive Director, PRI PS. Please note that we have switched to electronic invitation mode and no card will be mailed. To regret Email: pri.bangladesh@gmail.com, info@pri-bd.org Tel: 9899759, 9872376

Chair: Ambassador Farooq Sobhan President, BEI, Bangladesh

9:30am – 9:45am Opening Remarks Chief Guest: Professor Rehman Sobhan, Chairman, Center for Policy Dialogue (CPD), Former Economic Adviser to the Interim Government of Bangladesh

9:45am--10:15am

    Keynote: Cultures, Civilizations and Identity in Democratization

Dr. Zillur R. Khan, Chair, RC 37, IPSA Commentator: Ambassador Rashed Ahmed, Former UN Chief of Mission, Kosovo

10:15am —10:30am Coffee Break Schism and Political Development

Moderator: Dr. Sadiq Ahmed, Vice President, PRI

10:30am - 12:30pm Schisms in Christianity and Islam in Comparative Perspectives: Impact on Political Development Hassan Mneimneh, Senior Transatlantic Fellow, German Marshall Fund, Washington DC.

The Arab Variant of Democracy: Islam and Secularism Professor Mark Farha, Visiting Professor of Middle Eastern Politics, Georgetown University, School Of Foreign Service, Doha, Qatar.

Secularism and Political Development in India Prof. C. P. Barthwal, Former Vice Chancellor, Kumaun University, Nainital; Professor and Head of Public Administration and Dean, Lucknow University; Editor, Indian Journal of Political Science & Bharatya Rajniti Vigyan Shod Patrika (India).

Commentator: Dr. Tazeen Murshid, Centre for Development Research and Cooperation (DRC-Global), Belgium, Member, Asiatic Society of Bangladesh

12:30pm—2:00pm Lunch

Day 1: Session II

Political-Territorial Identity and Political Development

Moderator: Dr. Mizanur Rahman Shelley, Chairman, Center for Development Research-Bangladesh (CDRB)

2:00pm—3:30pm A Re-evaluation of the work of Samuel Huntington on Political Development in the Light of Pakistan's Troubled Experience with Democracy and Dictatorship Professor Theodore Wright, Former President, South Asian Muslim Studies Association (SAMSA), Professor Emeritus of Political Science, The State University of New York at Albany.

Political Development and Crossroads of Cultural Constructs Ms. Rana Tiwari, Attorney-at-Law, Rana Tiwari Offices, USA.

Russian Social and Political Discourse in Democratizations Dr. Yan Vaslavkiy, Moscow State University, Russian Federation

Commentator: Dr. Ameena Mohsin, Professor, Dhaka University, Bangladesh Round Table Discussion: Social Evaluation of Democracy: The Consensus Building Process

3:30pm-5:00pm Moderator: Dr. Meghna Guhathakurta, Executive Director, Research Initiative, Bangladesh (RIB)

Special Guest Participants: Mr. Enam Ahmed Choudhury, Former Secretary and Adviser to Former Leader of the Opposition, Government of Bangladesh

Dr. Badiul Alam Majumdar, Secretary, SHUJON (Civil Society Association on Good Governance)

Dr. Tazeen Murshid, Centre for Development Research and Cooperation (DRC-Global), Belgium, Member, Asiatic Society of Bangladesh 7: 00 PM: Dinner Reception At Ambassador & Mrs. Rashed Ahmed’s Arcadia Plaza: House # 65/A, Flat # 2B, Road # 7 /A, Dhanmondi R/A (next to Scholars School), Dhaka, Bangladesh. Phone: Off: +88-02-9125870, +88-02-9129849, Res: +88-02-9130723 Cell: +88-1715778608, +88-01937991900

Gender, Stability and Advancement

Moderator: Dr. Ahsan Mansur, Executive Director, PRI

9:30am – 9:45am Opening Remarks Chief Guest: Dr. Mashiur Rahman, Economic Adviser, Government of Bangladesh

9:45am – 12:00pm Law and Culture in Women’s Empowerment for Sustainable Development Maneeza Hossain, Senior Fellow Hudson Institute, USA, Director at Daily Ittefaq, Bangladesh

Role of Civil Society and Women’s Movements in Egypt in the Context of Arab Spring Abdul Gaffar, Doctoral Candidate, School of International Studies, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi, India

Rethinking Sino-Japanese Relation: The Russian Perspective Dr. Yan Vaslavkiy, Moscow State University, Russian Federation

12:00pm – 12:30pm Open Discussions

12:30pm – 2:00pm Lunch

Day 2: Session II

Public-Private Interactions for Political Development

Moderator: Ambassador Humayun Kabir, Vice President, BEI; Former Ambassador of Bangladesh in the USA

2:00pm – 4:00pm Will Policy Paralysis Undermine India’s Growth Story? Dr. Upendra Choudhury, Associate Professor, Department of Political Science, Aligarh Muslim University (AMU) Aligarh-202002, Uttar Pradesh, India.

Corporate Law and Public-Private Cooperation in Political Development- Mr. Masud Khan, Barrister Anita Ghazi, Legal Circle, Bangladesh.

Concluding Remarks: Dr. Zillur R. Khan, Chair, RC 37, IPSA

Announcement: Book Launching of Regional Cooperation and Globalization : Bangladesh, South Asia and Beyond by Zillur R. Khan and Meghna Guhathakurta (Eds.), UPL, 2012, jointly organized by BEI and BIISS will be held at BIISS Auditorium during the third week of December, 2014, or first week of January, 2015.

21Jul 2013

JOINT IPSA WORKSHOP IN BANGLADESH, FEBRUARY 1-2, 2014

International Political Science Association (IPSA)’s Grant of USD1000.00 for a Joint IPSA Workshop by RC 37 and RC 2, IPSAWorkshop Organizers: Zillur R. Khan, Chair, RC 37/IPSA: Rethinking Political Development; Rosebush Professor Emeritus, University of Wisconsin and Adjunct Professor, Rollins College, USA, and Distinguished Fellow, Policy Research Institute, Bangladesh. Co-organizer is RC 2/IPSA: Political Elites represented by its Executive Board Member, Professor Oxana Gaman-Golutvina, Head of Comparative Politics Department, MGIMO-University, Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Russia, President of Russian Political Science Association, and Chairman of RPSA National Committee on Political Elites.

Workshop Title: Rethinking Political Development: Cultures, Civilizations and Identity. Proposed Date: February 1-2, 214. Rationale for the Workshop: The workshop will bring together international scholars in an effort to explore the different facets of nationalism secular and non-secular, and sovereignty absolute and cooperative, in the context of the evolving perceptions of human identity immersed in different cultures and civilizations in the changing global power relations. Given the fact that Political Science has varied dimensions the discrepancy between model and local empirical conditions are often within the margin of accommodation where cultural weight rests, impacting the effectiveness of outcomes. The recent history across the world comprising political upheavals in the Middle East and rising politico-economic-social tensions in Asia has presented many cases in which societies have not displayed a political behavior in conformity with the expectations of either the normative or empirical facets of political theory. This departure may be due to the unaccounted for importance of the cultural elements that the different political models seem either to exclude, or treat lightly. Is it therefore useful and/or necessary to revise political development models to put greater emphasis on these cultural variables? Nation-states from the Middle East to South and South East Asia to Far East present sometime a dysfunctional competition for control of resources, both known and yet-to-be found. Could the unresolved legacies of such behavior and a weak political culture serve as catalysts to transform the state-society relations to a new model of a positive national sovereignty--the sovereignty of the citizen and the service-provider character of state institutions? Could this development create one world and fundamentally change the traditional definition of national sovereignty, outmoding national boundaries and negative (jingoistic) aspects of nationalism? Against the backdrop of geopolitical and ideological rivalries could Muslim majority countries meet their development needs by “progressive openness’? Could Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Egypt, Indonesia, Iran, Libya, Malaysia, Pakistan, Syria, Tunisia and Turkey, among others, engage in fruitful cooperation with the West in productive co-existence, leading to close cooperation to manage, if not resolve the conflict between Western civilization and Non-Western cultures in the changing global power relations?

Focus and Re-focus of Workshop Panels The panels will focus on the spirit as well as the process of democratization in nations with a long history of non-democratic rule and conservative cultures. Despite the natural human hopes and aspirations for freedom, rulers have applied different strategies, political, economic and cultural to maintain their authoritarian and/or totalitarian rule using various justifications. They range from economic exploitation and politico-cultural (civilizing the Barbarians, as Hobbes put it, as the justification for colonizing the non-Western World) domination to superiority of ideologies claimed by rulers over the previous political systems (Theocracy over Tribalism: Holy Roman Empire; Ottoman Caliphate system; Communism over Monarchical authoritarianism; Democratic and Social-Democratic Capitalism over Nazism and Fascism). There are myriad other conflicts among various variants of ideologies invoking the challenge to rethink political development for stability, peace and prosperity. As the Arab uprisings have shown, a mixture of Theocracy and a specific non-Western, cultural version of Democracy seems to be challenging the people who have succeeded in overthrowing some “civilianized” military dictators through mass movements for freedom. A special focus will be on the multifaceted change brought about by such mass movements and what needs to be done to continue its beneficial effects. And, more importantly, what type of political-economic strategy must be employed to prevent retrogression. A re-focus of at least two panels will be on “Rethinking Political Development (charge of RC 37) spearheaded by Elites (charge of RC 2) in different countries, particularly the emerging BRICS and beyond, evaluating multiple policy making and implementing options to resolve conflicts before they spiral out of control and end in the highest form of terrorism: interstate wars. In this context conflict resolution efforts in different cultural environments and their outcome could be used as a reliable indicator of the degree of effectiveness of peaceful negotiations in settling culturally charged issues at national, regional, both intra- and inter-, and international levels. Also, due weight would be placed on panel proposals that deal with global warming and its impact on political decision making affecting the most vulnerable regions, e.g., Americas (southernmost parts of North and South America), Australia, South Asia (particularly Bangladesh, Maldives and Sri Lanka) and South East Asia (particularly southern parts of Burma, Indonesia, Philippines and Thailand). And what kinds of policies and methods of implementation need to be initiated through innovative cooperation by the more and less developed nations to prevent, or at least contain and minimize the devastating effects of global warming on vulnerable nations and regions.

Format, Content, and Output: The workshop is expected to be inaugurated by either Professor Dr. Muhammad Yunus, a Bangladeshi Banking innovator who was awarded Nobel Peace Prize in 2006, or Professor Rehman Sobhan, Founder Chairman of the Center for Policy Dialogue, who served as chief economic advisor to the founder of Bangladesh: Sheikh Mujibur Rahman, and in 1991 was the Finance Advisor of the Interim Government of Bangladesh. Ambassador Farouk Sobhan, Former Foreign Secretary of the Government of Bangladesh and Chairman, Bangladesh Enterprise Initiative (BEI) will preside over the inaugural sessions of the two-day IPSA workshop. The expected format is a two-day workshop to be hosted jointly by Bangladesh Enterprise Initiative (BEI) and the Policy Research Institute (PRI), Bangladesh. The workshop will consist of six panels (6 x 3 paper-givers); with one discussant and one chair per panel, and two inaugural sessions with a moderator for each where four keynote papers will be presented. Each paper-giver will make a 15-20 minute presentation. Once the panellists have concluded their presentations, the discussant(s) will provide a brief set of oral comments (5-7 minutes). The panel chair will then open the floor to questions and discussion (15-20 minutes) from the audience. Professor Zillur R. Khan, Chair of RC 37, IPSA will serve as Keynote Speaker at the first inaugural session, presenting his address on the need of rethinking the whole issue of development from the perspective of Culture and Civilization in the context of identity based values affecting varied democratizing processes and power relations in an increasing global competition for resources. The title is likely to be “Rethinking Political Development with a Special Focus on the Impact of Culture based Identity on Democratization”. Dr. Ahsan Mansur, Former Division Chief of IMF and Executive Director, Policy Research Institute, Bangladesh, will deliver the second Keynote address focusing on “Cultural Dimensions of International Support for Development Plans and their Implementation”. The final Keynote address of the inaugural session will be delivered by Professor Dr. Oxana Gaman-Golutvina, Head of Comparative Politics Department, MGIMO-University, Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Russia, President of Russian Political Science Association, member of IPSA RC 2 Political Elites Executive Board, Chairman of RPSA National Committee Political Elites, on "Political Elites of Post-Soviet Russia and the Challenges of Political Development."

On the second day’s inaugural session, Dr. Zaidi Sattar, Chairman, Policy Research Institute (PRI), Bangladesh, Adviser to the Financial Express, the leading financial daily of Bangladesh, and Member of Board of Directors of Southeast Bank Ltd., Industrial and Infrastructure Finance Development Co. (IIFDC), Venture Investment Partners (VIPB) Ltd., Chittagong Stock Exchange (CSE), and Asia Insurance Ltd., will deliver the concluding Keynote Address on "The Critical Role of Political Institutions in the process of Economic Development of Bangladesh". In the Q & A session an additional focus will be on how effectively International Development Institutions provided strategic support to Politico-Economic development of Bangladesh in the context of South Asia and beyond. The results of the workshop will be communicated within the International Political Science Association (IPSA) and wider academic communities (as well as practitioners and policy-makers) via the subsequent publication of an edited volume of selected papers. Following the workshop, a book prospectus will be sent to leading academic publishers that have published books either focusing on a similar topic or employing a compatible theoretical approach, such as Cambridge University Press, Cornell University Press, Duke University Press, Harvard University Press and McGill-Queen’s University Press, among others. Commercial peer-reviewed presses, such as Oxford, Routledge, Lynne Rienner, Palgrave Macmillan, The University Press Limited (formerly Oxford University Press in Bangladesh), will also be considered.

Budgeting and Funding Applications: The amount budgeted for the workshop is US$ 6000.00. Local costs of the meeting will be covered by the local hosts, namely PRI and Bangladesh Enterprise Institute (BEI). I've received communication from a number of participants of XXII World Congress and previous Workshops showing interest in participating in different capacity at the proposed workshop. Their travel would be largely funded by their respective institutions with some support from IPSA Workshop funding. In addition to local participants there will be paper presenters from Canada, England, France, Germany, India, Lebanon, Pakistan, Qatar, Russia, Turkey and USA. As Chair of IPSA RC 37 (and workshop organizer), Dr. Zillur R. Khan has been awarded a grant of USD 1,000 from the IPSA Committee on Research and Training (CRT). It is understood that in accordance with established IPSA rules, IPSA funds may only be used for contributing to the travel expenses of paper-givers on a “fair” basis taking into account special needs, not for paying honoraria.

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27Nov 2012

Proposed IPSA Joint Workshop by RC 37 and RC 2

International Political Science Association (IPSA): Proposal for Funding a Joint IPSA Workshop by RC 37 and RC 2, IPSA

Workshop Organizers: Zillur R. Khan, Chair, RC 37/IPSA: Rethinking Political Development; Rosebush Professor Emeritus, University of Wisconsin and Adjunct Professor, Rollins College, USA, and Distinguished Fellow, Policy Research Institute, Bangladesh. Co-organizer is RC 2/IPSA: Political Elites represented by its Executive Board Member, Professor Oxana Gaman-Golutvina, Head of Comparative Politics Department, MGIMO-University, Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Russia, President of Russian Political Science Association, and Chairman of RPSA National Committee on Political Elites.

Workshop Title: Rethinking Political Development: Cultures, Civilizations and Identity. Proposed Date: December 12-13, 2013

Rationale for the Workshop: The workshop will bring together international scholars in an effort to explore the different facets of nationalism-secular and non-secular, and sovereignty-absolute and cooperative, in the context of the evolving perceptions of human identity immersed in different cultures and civilizations in global power relations.

Given the fact that Political Science has varied dimensions the discrepancy between model and local empirical conditions are often within the margin of accommodation where cultural weight rests, impacting the outcome of interactions.

The recent history across the world comprising political upheavals in the Middle East and rising politico-economic-social tensions in Asia has presented many cases in which societies have not displayed a political behavior in conformity with the expectations of either the normative or empirical facets of political theory. This departure may be due to the unaccounted for importance of the cultural elements that the different political models exclude. Is it therefore useful and/or necessary to revise political development models to account for these cultural variables?

Nation-states from the Middle East to South and South East Asia to Far East present a dysfunctional competition for control of resources, both known and yet-to-be found. Could the unresolved legacies of such conflicts and a weak political culture serve as catalysts to transform the state-society relations to a new model of a positive national sovereignty--the sovereignty of the citizen and the service-provider character of state institutions? Could this development create one world and fundamentally change the traditional definition of national sovereignty, outmoding national boundaries and negative aspects of nationalism?

Against the backdrop of geopolitical and ideological rivalries could Muslim majority countries meet their development needs by “progressive openness’? Could Bangladesh, Egypt, Indonesia, Iran, Libya, Malaysia, Pakistan, Syria, Tunisia, Turkey, among others, engage in fruitful cooperation with the West in productive co-existence, if not close cooperation, to manage, if not resolve the conflict between western civilization and non-western cultures in the changing global power relations?

Format, Content, and Output: The workshop is expected to be inaugurated by Professor Rehman Sobhan, Founder Chairman of the Center for Policy Dialogue, Bangladesh. Ambassador Farouk Sobhan, Chairman, Bangladesh Enterprise Institute (BEI) will preside over the inaugural sessions of the two-day IPSA workshop. The expected format is a two-day workshop to be hosted jointly by Bangladesh Enterprise Institute (BEI) and the Policy Research Institute (PRI), Bangladesh. The workshop will consist of six panels (6 x 3 paper-givers); with one discussant and one chair per panel, and two inaugural sessions with a moderator for each where three keynote papers will be presented.

Each paper-giver will make a 15-minute presentation. Once the panellists have concluded their presentations, the discussant(s) will provide a brief set of oral comments (10-15 minutes). The panel chair will then open the floor to questions and discussion (35-45 minutes) from the audience. Professor Zillur R. Khan, Chair of RC 37, IPSA will serve as Keynote Speaker at the first inaugural session, presenting his address on the need of rethinking the whole issue of development from the perspective of Culture and Civilization in the context of identity based values affecting power relations in an increasing global competition for resources. Dr. Ahsan Mansur, Executive Director, Policy Research Institute, Bangladesh, will deliver the second Keynote address focusing on cultural dimensions of international support for development plans and their implementation. On the second day’s inaugural session, Dr. Zaidi Sattar, Chairman, Policy Research Institute (PRI), Bangladesh, Adviser to the Financial Express, the leading financial daily of Bangladesh, and Member of Board of Directors of Southeast Bank Ltd., Industrial and Infrastructure Finance Development Co. (IIFDC), Venture Investment Partners (VIPB) Ltd., Chittagong Stock Exchange (CSE), and Asia Insurance Ltd., will deliver the concluding Keynote Address on "The critical Role of Political Institutions in the process of economic development of Bangladesh". In the Q & A session an additional focus will be on how effectively have International Development Institutions provided strategic support to Politico-Economic development of Bangladesh in the context of South Asia. The results of the workshop will be communicated within the International Political Science Association (IPSA) and wider academic communities (as well as outside it to practitioners and policy-makers) via the subsequent publication of an edited volume of selected papers. Following the workshop, a book prospectus will be sent to leading academic publishers that have published books either focusing on a similar topic or employing a compatible theoretical approach, such as Cambridge University Press, Cornell University Press, Duke University Press and McGill-Queen’s University Press. Commercial peer-reviewed presses, such as Oxford, Routledge, Lynne Rienner, and Palgrave Macmillan, will also be considered.

Budgeting and Funding Applications: The amount budgeted for the workshop is US$ 4000.00. Local costs of the meeting will be covered by the local hosts, namely PRI and Bangladesh Enterprise Institute (BEI). I've received communication from a number of participants of XXII World Congress, showing interest in presenting papers at the proposed workshop. They’ve also assured me that their travel would be largely funded by their respective institutions. In addition to local participants there will be paper presenters from Canada, France, India, Lebanon, Pakistan, Qatar, Russia, Turkey and USA. As Chair of IPSA RC 37 (and workshop organizer), I am applying for USD 2,000 in funding from the IPSA Committee on Research and Training (CRT) so that we reach the ($4,000.00) budget-target. It is understood that in accordance with established IPSA rules, IPSA funds may only be used for contributing to the travel expenses of paper-givers on a “fair” basis taking into account special needs, not for paying honoraria.

15Nov 2012

RC 37 News from IPSA Workshop, Nov. 6-8, 2011, at Rollins College, USA

News from RC 37/IPSA: Chair, Zillur R. Khan, Professor Emeritus, University of Wisconsin and Adjunct Professor Rollins College, USA A highly effective Two-Day Joint Workshop on Multifaceted Role of the Elites and Transforming Leadership on Political Development, sponsored by RC 37 and RC 2, and hosted by Rollins College, USA, was concluded on November 7-8, 2011, where the following political and social scientists, and one natural scientist, participated. Dr Carol Bresnehan, Vice President and Provost of Rollins College and John Bersia, a two-time Pulitzer Prize Winner Political Scientist respectively served as inaugural speaker and chief guest. Paper presenters were Drs. Dawood Afzal, USA, Rainer Eisfeld, Germany, Mark Farha, Qatar, Oxana Gaman-Golutvina, Russia, Ms. Maneeza Hossain, Bangladesh, Ms. Amna Yousef Khokar, Pakistan, Drs. Zillur Khan, USA, Julia Maskivker, Argentina, Sanjeev Kumar Sarma, India, Yan Vaslavskiy, Russia, Mr. Neil Padukone, USA, Dr. Vince Chua Reyes, Singapore, Ms. Isil Turkan, Turkey, Dr. Theodore Wright, USA, and Ms. Julia Zakirova, Russia. Among the above workshop participants, Afzal, Farha, Khan, Khokar, Mansur, Padukone, Sharma, Turkan and Vaslavskiy will present papers and/or serve as chair/discussant in the panels convened by RC 37 at the IPSA World Congress in Madrid, July 8-12, 2012. Dr. Zillur Khan, Chair of RC 37 and Dr. Oxana Gaman-Golutvina, representing RC 2, are planning to bring out a volume of papers selected from the Joint IPSA Workshop and from RC 37 and RC 2 Sessions at the Madrid World Congress during July 8-12, 2012.



Dr. Khan giving his keynote address. Dr. Khan and Dr. Gaman-Golutvina with some participants.

29Mar 2011

The Concept of Justice and Democracy

The Concept of Justice and Democracy*

Zillur R. Khan, Professor Emeritus University of Wisconsin and Adjunct Professor Rollins College, USA. Chair, RC 37, IPSA Prepared for Presentation at the AIBS, Dhaka, Bangladesh, March 15, 2011

John Rawls defines Justice as basic fairness in multidimensional interactions between humans and their institutions. The purpose of such varied interactions is to balance democracy with striving for security. (John Rawls, 2003:3-102.). Implicit in it seems to be a form of social contract inspired by the fairness principle contributing to societal stability. It helps to create a common ground on which political communities with the nation states being their highest expression can build an ideology of understanding and cooperation. But without a deep commitment of the leadership to justice as the basic principle of fairness in both policymaking and policy implementing, i.e., governance, the potentials for advancement would remain static. Ensuring human rights and the due process of law—two most important dimensions of justice—could transform a static state, which sometimes becomes regressive, into a dynamic state of just policies and good governance---two sustainable anchors of development. As Amartya Sen argues, “Development requires the removal of major sources of unfreedom: poverty as well as tyranny, poor economic opportunities as well as systematic social deprivation, neglect of public facilities as well as intolerance or overactivity of repressive states” (Amartya Sen, Development as Freedom. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 2000).

In that context the legal system, which for developing countries still carries the baggage of colonialism, must be reformed. Justice in and for Democracy needs a basic structure of society where “main political and social institutions of society fit together into one system of social cooperation, and the way they assign basic rights and duties and regulate the division of advantages that arises from social cooperation over time…”(John Rawls, Justice as Fairness: A Restatement. Ed. Erin Kelly. Harvard University Press: Cambridge, 3rd Printing, 2003). This, according to Rawls, is “background justice”, which is needed for a well ordered society where advantages of power and resources can be divided and distributed fairly. Upholding this fairness principle would involve limits on power, preventing excessive concentration and resulting misuse by individuals, groups, associations and institutions. An outcome based justice in terms of ensuring justice of different types, such as, substantive, procedural, distributive and compensatory, among others, while correcting injustice complement Rawls’ “transcendental” background justice, as Sen has argued (Sen, The Idea of Justice, Harvard, 2009). Here I submit that most of the factors connected with the Bengali struggle for freedom, mostly involving a growing demand for state rights stemming from their hopes and aspirations for a better life have defined their demand for justice as basic fairness. Thus Bengali movement for freedom in Pakistan culminating in the creation of a new nation played on two conceptual levels: the ideal of justice as basic fairness to strive for and operational reality of justice in addressing specific cases of injustice.

The right of dissent captures the basic freedoms providing the essence of Democracy, without which a democratic state cannot properly function. This core human value has different dimensions encompassing freedom of speech to press to assembly to religion enshrined in most of today’s constitutions. But in the name of security most states have infringed this basic human right, undermining the core principle of justice. Using this framework and a cross-cultural dimension I wish to explore the strategies and options for reforms of political, economic and social systems in Bangladesh. Unfortunately democratization without a deep leadership commitment to justice tends to break down at the altar of narrow political and group interests.

Perhaps the most important values sustaining democratic governance and institutions are universal rule of law and right of dissent manifested through tolerance, integrity, effectiveness and responsiveness in electing and selecting decision makers, which elude most third world nations, most recent case being Arab revolutions sweeping the Middle East, especially brought on by Arab leaders’ political suppression, intimidations, mal-governance and fraudulent elections. Similar incidents happened in a number of African and Asian nations over the last six decades, including Pakistan. The Pakistani military crackdown on the movement of the people of East Pakistan for justice was so bloody that the then American Consul General in East Pakistan, Archer Blood who saved me, termed it as “Selective Genocide” (Blood, 202: 215-117). It was a catalyst for the liberation war creating a new nation of Bangladesh.

Following liberation, like many developing nations with weak institutions---a legacy of colonial rule, the bureaucracy, both civil and military, gained strength due to inexperience of political leaders with the concept of justice, particularly its application for policymaking and governance. Trying to make up for weak governance with strong political power led to corruption of power and mismanagement of scarce resources, to the dismay of a liberated people with great expectations.

Justice: Underlying Democratic Values Here the underlying principle of justice as basic fairness could have at least reduced if not bridged the gap between public expectations and harsh realities. I believe through an institution building and reforming process involving educational, legal-judicial, socio-economic and politico-administrative entities, the values of tolerance of others with different views and beliefs together with the acknowledgement of their capability and contributions will go a long way in reducing that gap. In advancing these values along with the right of dissent a fledgling democracy like Bangladesh must make its HRC a high powered, non-partisan institution with legally guaranteed political non-interference and needed administrative support for its investigating, deliberating and reporting duties. As well implementing the constitutional provision of Ombudsman might help mitigate the alleged inhuman treatment some have allegedly received while in custody of police and military intelligence agencies. Both the caretaker and elected governments must consider whether or not these Commissions will be authorized to hold Hearings on grievances from aggrieved citizenry. The fact is without having Subpoena and Contempt powers, and requisite resources—material and personnel---these Commissions would be toothless.

Interlinked with the right of dissent is the right of opposition to voice its concerns at every level of policymaking process. In order to make a democracy really workable serious efforts must be undertaken by elected leaders to build stakes for opposition parties to meaningfully participate in parliament. It could involve, for example, apportioning time to opposition parties in parliamentary deliberations and committee assignments in proportion to their representation, preferably by combining the percentages of electoral votes and parliamentary seats. Also for a balanced approach to assuring the main opposition party a meaningful role in parliamentary deliberations an important institutional change could be considered whereby the Deputy Speaker of Parliament as well as Associate Chairs of Parliamentary Committees would be selected by the opposition. This strategy might prevent future deadlocks caused by intransigence of the majority party to give the opposition enough time to actively participate in parliamentary deliberations. More often than not the “Winner Takes All” (WTA) mentality has resulted in boycott of parliamentary deliberations by the opposition followed by street agitations and general strikes having adverse effects on national development. A change in the electoral system may be tried on a trial basis replacing WTA with proportional representation (PR) in which percentage of votes by different parties in the general election would reflect the number of parliamentary seats won by respective parties. This could serve the cause of both representational and electoral justice, which I’ll discuss later.

Social Contract, Justice and Power Concerted efforts by public and private sectors are needed to renewing the spirit of Social Contract, which I believe is an important dimension of justice. Such a renewal would contribute to a vital socio-economic-political balance by mixing human rights with accountability at every societal level. It would call upon institutional reformers to become transforming change agents, striving to be leaders and teachers at the same time, raising the consciousness of their followers to a higher level at which spontaneous mobilization of human and material resources could happen. The value of the great leap “from status to contract” must be inculcated through a reformed, progressive education system and a deep political commitment to changing the mindset of leaders at every level in every field from the self-centered transactional relationships to public interest based transforming ones between themselves and their constituents.

In this regard fundamental reforms of religious institutions are in order for reviving the spirit of Islam about an open quest for knowledge and peace. Buttressed by returning Bangladeshi Jihadists from Afghanistan, Iraq and Pakistan, some radicalized Mullahs and their pupils continue unabated to distort Islam in private or quami Madrassas to justify violence against secular minded Muslims, disadvantaged women and religious minorities in Bangladesh.

There is also an important question about justice and power. Given the political reality that institutionalization of power is an arduous, painful and long-drawn process, what new strategies or rethinking of existing ones must be applied to check human propensity to personalize and perpetuate power positions by any means undermining justice itself? Unrestrained power invariably impedes freedom and justice vital for multifaceted development. I believe transforming leadership and enduring institutionalization of power relationships can make a real difference in the struggle for justice and against poverty and unfreedoms.

Giving everyone his due - rights, authority, accountability and equal opportunity to get education to develop one’s innate ability - has been a core guideline of Justice from Plato to Gandhi to John Rawls to Amartya Sen. Rights with corresponding obligations as a matter of basic justice have been expanding since English and American Bills of Rights culminating in the civil and voting rights legislations of the sixties, which added “compensatory” as an important dimension of justice. This became the legal as well as moral basis of affirmative action programs in America and elsewhere. But it takes deep commitment of leaders - executive, legislative, judicial or any combination - to translate justice from legal acts to operational reality.

Justice and Leadership As always the difficult and complex work of applying justice for human development inevitably falls on the shoulders of leaders and followers at every level. Leadership, therefore, has been a special focus in the literature on political development in its various facets. Without the leaders’ capacity to balance security and freedom through justice in an institutional framework, transformation of their own consciousness along with their followers cannot happen. And without it fundamental changes could never take place and well-intentioned reforms would seldom have their desired results. Regardless of the type---moral, constitutional, legal, bureaucratic, charismatic or any combination, leaders become ineffective without their ability to transform vital goals into tangible programs of action. For that they need knowledge, relevant experience, an iron will to minimize “Groupthink” and control their “cocoon weaving mind guards” and a touch of wisdom to bring about tactical reforms and avoid political disasters. In the new information age of face books and twitters, leaders must not only bypass screening of negative feedbacks but also learn how to leverage the deluge of information classifying and clarifying with the specific purpose to engage and motivate citizens and functionaries for improving governance, and by a feedback loop policymaking itself.

Electoral Justice Indeed, electoral justice is the foundation of any democratic government. However, it needs a firm institutional framework to prevent electoral fraud and violence, which routinely claims lives in elections in most developing countries. The process of choosing leaders by free and fair elections has eluded most third world nations, most recent case being in Iran during June 2009 where questionable elections resulted in mass protests and government crackdown claiming a number of innocent lives, not to mention the troubled and questionable elections held in Afghanistan in July-August, 2009 under the security umbrella of US led ISAF, consisting chiefly of NATO countries.

An enforceable guideline for holding all elections must have a tested method to prepare an above board electoral roll, verify fiscal accountability of candidates, provide impartial monitoring of polling stations, and impose heavy fines and imprisonment for fraudulent voting. A non-partisan Election Commission, headed by a strong willed, politically neutral Chief Election Commissioner, with Subpoena and Contempt powers under the constitution to rule on disputed electoral outcome on a case by case basis, allowing judicial appeal as a last resort, can be more effective. An unquestionable, above-board election gives elected leaders the legitimacy to mobilize public support, even among segments of opposition parties, for a myriad of important policies. As well by upholding electoral justice leaders could then begin a transforming process in which free and fair elections become a routine political phenomenon in more developed and not-so-developed emerging nations.

Among the not-so-developed emerging nations Bangladesh offers a case in point. Representing the third largest nation in South Asia and seventh in the world, lawmakers in Bangladesh sought to ensure free and fair elections by incorporating an Amendment into the young nation’s Constitution mandating that all general elections be administered under a non-partisan Caretaker Government. Given the weakness of institutions in most emerging nations, a constitutionally empowered election commission may not be strong enough to withstand increasing pressure from an incumbent government to tilt the balance in its favor. Much as any ruling party would like to end the Caretaker Government innovation of Bangladesh by repealing its 13th Constitutional Amendment, it might be a prudent political move to continue for a few more general elections. In fact, two highly respected Chief Elections Commissioners of India have suggested replicating the non-partisan Caretaker Government experiment in emerging nations, particularly in state elections in India, if not at the federal level.

Representational Justice Closely connected with electoral justice is Representational Justice. Is it just to have representation in parliament that is grossly disproportionate to votes won by a political party in general elections? For instance, in spite of Bangladesh’s one of the two biggest political parties, Awami League (AL) winning more than 33% votes in 2001 election it received less than 20% seats in the Parliament and the situation was reversed in 2008. In spite of winning more than 30% popular votes, Bangladesh’s other biggest political party - Bangladesh Nationalist Party (BNP) - got less than 11% of parliamentary seats. The issue of representational justice, namely basic fairness in determining parliamentary seats on the basis of popular votes won by respective political parties has captured the attention of the British voters, who will vote on majority vs. plurality principle of electoral law in a referendum this year (2011). Depending on the outcome of that referendum interested parties in Bangladesh may get the opportunity to take a closer look at WTA and compare with the European PR system with a view to understanding the possible impact of each on representation in parliament.

More often than not the WTA mentality has been responsible for parliamentary dysfunction. A change in the electoral system may be tried on an experimental basis replacing WTA with PR in randomly selected constituencies in which percentage of votes by different parties in the general election would reflect the number of parliamentary seats won by them. Or at least a majority rather plurality voting rule could be tested in randomly chosen constituencies. In this a majority rather than plurality of votes through run-off elections, if needed, may prevent a situation where a candidate winning 15% to 20% of popular votes gets elected as MP, whereas in another constituency a candidate securing 35% to 45% fails to become a MP. Whether by a continuous public debate or by a constitutional convention, it is important to build a national consensus for resolving the issue of appropriate electoral system for a stable Democracy in not only Bangladesh but other emerging countries as well.

Also for representational justice there must be a process by which the elected can be held accountable between general elections. With its two thirds majority in Parliament could the ruling party seriously consider incorporating a constitutional amendment to utilize strategies of “Recall” to vote corrupt elected officials out of office in special elections? Again for representational justice could they consider by the same process to empower voters to propose and ratify important public policies through respectively “Initiative” and “Referendum” in special and/or general elections? This Swiss electoral innovation has been incorporated in a majority of American State Constitutions (37 out of 50) and a number of European countries with positive outcome.

Perhaps a future bicameral legislature in Bangladesh could significantly alleviate the felt problem of representation, particularly for women, in the highest policy making body. Representational justice demands much more than what the 45 nominated women parliamentarians could hope to accomplish. For example, in a future upper house the method of proportional representation could significantly give women, smaller political parties and occupational-professional groups a sure way to increase participation in the national-cum-sub-national policymaking processes, helping to check any excesses of the other house and to build policy consensus on national goals as well. To that end, Japan has effectively combined the two electoral methods, namely 300 single member districts and 180 multimember proportional representation constituencies in the lower house of its legislative body (Diet).

Justice and Development Both Representational Justice and Development as Freedom can be further ensured by devolution of authority to the grassroots. It would make the local government system more self reliant. Despite some expected downside of localization in the shape of increased clannishness and related nepotism-cum-corruption, serious decentralization - both political and economic - would reduce local government’s over - dependence on the higher bureaucracy, thereby helping the people at the grass-roots level to take initiative in defining and solving a myriad of local problems. The self-help and creativity thus engendered could become a major force of development, leading to greater socio-economic development in rural areas setting perhaps a new trend of reverse migration from urban to rural areas, significantly narrowing the urban-rural divide and the resulting socio-economic-political problems facing many of today’s emerging countries, including Bangladesh, China and India.

For sustainable human development strategic tolerance for survival, control and progress has been a positive influence throughout history. Lack of relative tolerance has led to the fall of empires, civilizations and nation states (Chua, 2009: 1-200; Ferguson, 2006: xlii-xlvi; Zakaria, 2008:10-18). Basically among emerging nations with Muslim majority or large minority Bangladesh has been and is a relatively tolerant nation, which some religious extremists have sought to change overtly by terrorism and covertly using certain militant parties as vehicles to spread a distorted interpretation of a great world religion---Islam.

To ensure justice, averting possible incidents of injustice, violent fanatics must be brought under control. An effective, sustainable way to do it will be through the restoration of the tolerant and knowledge based thrust of education, which shapes a nation (Plato, Republic). Particularly religious education in Bangladesh, as in many other emerging countries, cries out for significant curricular reform to strike a balance between theological and scientific focus in most religious schools called Madrassas in South Asia, particularly private or Quami ones chiefly supported by Wahhabi charities whose trainees or Talibs emerged as Pakistani, Afghani, Bangladeshi and other nationality based extremist Talibans. Despite Qudrat-i-Khuda Commission’s recommendations in the early seventies followed by 1996 and 2010 Education Reforms in Bangladesh, and the public commitment of political leaders to bring basic curricular change in Madrassas, no qualitative change has taken place. In fact distortions of some theological concepts have continued unabated spewing hatred against the “others”, often resulting in increased militancy against women, minorities and those perceived by them as secularists. This trend has unfortunately been sustained by double standards of some western democracies.

Conclusion Leaders must make concerted and determined efforts at alleviating endemic poverty having dehumanizing effects on peoples in three fourth of the world, denying them access to life saving and life enriching systems. This would require coordinated actions by industrialized, resource rich and developing countries to invest in human development---socially, economically and politically. Here again Rawls’ “background justice” should be the basis for creation, allocation and distribution of resources, ensuring the basic fairness of the process. In specially convened sessions of the world body followed by regional intergovernmental and non-governmental organizations leaders at different levels could come up with acceptable action plans and needed resources to implement them. In the hands of just a few visionary-cum-transforming leaders the old global framework of survival through Mutual Assured Destruction or MAD could be transformed into a global quality of life through Serve Apparent Needs Effectively or SANE, perhaps creating a fundamentally different world MAP (Mutual Assured Peace). These global confidence and trust building efforts would likely have a positive impact on leadership at regional, national and local levels. Yet the fact remains unless the two nuclear rivals - India and Pakistan - settle their long drawn out territorial disputes, Bangladesh and other SAARC countries would be deprived of peace dividends, if any.

As global leadership for dynamic human development would be an important precondition for global peace, so would the regional and national leadership for regional peace, which would require fundamental changes in the perception of long term mutual benefits over short term apprehensions of mutual threats. For this a new leadership must emerge - knowledgeable, experiential, and intellectually and morally inspiring - enabling different types of leaders to be involved in a continuous individual/group interactive intellectual and operational experience. Reinforcing the spirit of social contract, the dissemination of knowledge and experience on a bilateral and/or multilateral basis would have as its chief purpose to achieve a consensus on certain fundamental values. This could help create a sound framework for concerted, integrated decision making and implementing for societal advancement. Public-private policy forums and projects jointly sponsored by government and civil society groups would help clarify problems and issues being faced and how best to address them in order to achieve consensus for national development by bridging security and freedom with justice and greatly facilitating the process of implementation of just policies.

Injustice advertently or inadvertently done, like ingratitude, paraphrasing Shakespeare, can be stronger than a traitor’s arm vanquishing the spirit of an individual or a group or a society or a nation. Pursuing the principle of basic fairness in inter-personal and inter-group dealings Bangladesh could play a primordial role in facing challenges not only with poverty alleviation but also with other intra-regional issues and concerns. After all, Bangladesh did start the regional movement for cooperation in both fields among South Asian countries.

Sources Tapped: Armstrong, K. 2006. Mohammad: A Prophet For Our Time. HarperCollins. Ahmed, R. (Ed.). 1990. Religion, Nationalism and Politics in Bangladesh. New Delhi: South Asian Publishers. Bhutto, B. 2008. RECONCILIATION: Islam, Democracy, and the West. New York, N.Y.: HarperCollins. Blood, A. 2002. The Cruel Birth of Bangladesh. University Press, Ltd. Chua, Amy. 2009. The Day of Empire. New York: Random House. Ferguson, N. 2007. The War of the World. New York: Penguin Books.

Jalal, A. 2008. Partisans of Allah: Jihad in South Asia, Cambridge, Mass: Harvard University Press. Khan, Z. R. and Andaleeb, S. (Eds.). 2011. Democracy in Bangladesh: Political Dimensions of National Development. Dhaka: University Press Ltd. Khan, Z .R. 1983. Leadership in the Least Developed Nation: Bangladesh. Syracuse, New York: Maxwell School of Citizenship and Public Affairs, Syracuse University. _. 1996. The Third World Charismat : Sheikh Mujib and the Struggle for Freedom. University Press, Ltd. Collier P. and A. Hoeffler. 1998. “On the Economic Causes of Civil War”. Oxford Economic Papers 50:563-73. Elklit, J. & Svensson. “What Makes Elections Free and Fair”, in Diamond, L. & Plattner, M. F. Eds. 2001. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press Esposito, J.L. & Mogahed, D. 2007. Who Speaks for Islam: What a Billion Muslims Really Think. Washington, DC.: Gallup Press. Huntington, S. 1996. The Clash of Civilization. New York, N.Y:Simon and Schuster. Rawls, J. 2003. A Theory of Justice. Cambridge: Massachusetts, Harvard University Press, 6th Printing. ___. 2003. Justice as Fairness: A Restatement. Ed. Erin Kelly. Harvard University Press: Cambridge, 3rd Printing. Sen, A. 2000. Development As Freedom. New York: Alfred A. Knopf. __. 2009. The Idea of Justice. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press. Seshan, T.N. 1995. The Regeneration of India. New Delhi, India: Viking Penguin.

14Mar 2011

Joint IPSA Workshop on Rethinking Political Development: Multifaceted Role of Elites, Nov 7-8, 2011

Updated Announcement

International Political Science Association (IPSA) Joint Workshop on Rethinking Political Development: Multifaceted Role of Elites and Transforming Leadership to be held on November 7-8, 2011 in Winter Park (near Orlando), Florida, USA

Workshop Organizers: Professor Dr. Zillur R. Khan and Dr. Yan Vaslavskiy, respectively Chair and Member, IPSA/RC 37: Rethinking Political Development. Zillur R. Khan is Professor Emeritus, University of Wisconsin and Adjunct Professor, Rollins College, U.S.A. and Dr.Yan Vaslavskiy is Deputy Head of Events at Global Policy Forum, Russian Federation and Board member, Russian Political Science Association, and from IPSA/RC 2: Political Elites are Professor Dr. Oxana Gaman-Golutvina, Chair of the Department of Comparative Politics, MGIMO-University, Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Russia; Chairman of Scientific Council; President of Russian Political Science Association, and Professor J. Higley, Professor of Political Science, University of Texas, respectively Member and Chair of IPSA/RC 2 Local Host and Organizer is Professor Robert Moore, Chair, International Affairs, Rollins College, Florida, USA

Title: Rethinking Political Development: Multifaceted Role of Elites and Transforming Leadership in Political Development Dates: November 7-8, 2011

Deadline for Submission of Panel/Paper Proposal with Abstracts: May 1, 2011 Rationale for the Workshop: The workshop will bring together international scholars to explore myriad roles of leaders and elites in enhancing the capacity for effective governance by rethinking political development from different perspectives. In constructing or reconstructing theories of leadership, elites and institutions for political development participants will examine, analyze and critique various issues of policy making and implementation facing the rapidly changing and adjusting political communities, particularly in emerging BRIC and Indonesia, Malaysia, South Africa and Turkey, among others. Reorienting the whole concept of development to better the quality of life in an uncertain world should be a challenge- intellectual, political, socio-economic and ideological -for both scholars and practitioners of Political Science and related fields participating in this workshop.

Panels will range from rethinking theories of leadership and elites in political development, to strategies and tactics for providing a common ground for negotiated settlement of controversial public policy goals and methods of their implementation, to resolving issues of identity, diversity and national security in evolving processes of globalization with widening gaps in benefits, particularly for the emerging countries from the Middle East to South-South East Asia to Far East, to dilemmas of freedom and security, to securing justice as basic fairness in inter-ethnic, inter-ideological and inter-state relations, to finally pushing the limits of political development to create a new MAP, i.e., Mutually Assured Peace, replacing MAD, i.e., Mutually Assured Destruction with SANE, i.e., Serve Appropriate Needs Effectively at whatever level. Could the unresolved legacies of local and regional conflicts in the globalizing process redefine sovereignty itself as seemingly happening in politico-economic experimentations in America, Europe, India and Russia, and the political upheaval occurring in the Middle East? Following are some suggested panels:

1. How elites and leaders could strike a balance between localism and nationalism to alleviate poverty.

2. Regional cooperation as a socio-political-economic strategy to transform the state-society relations to a new model of a positive national sovereignty---the sovereignty of the citizen and the service-provider character of state institutions.

3. The extent to which a pragmatic approach to ideological controversies over detached vis-à-vis inclusive secularism with a special emphasis on religious tolerance can shape the relationships between Western and Islamic World.

4. Defining the multifaceted role of elites and leaders in raising the consciousness of stake holders to a level at which coordinated action to resolve burning problems can happen, replacing counteractive rhetoric, against the backdrop of demographic, ecological and energy crises being faced by mostly developing countries.

5. A possible fifth panel may take up terrorism and how elites and leaders in Western and non-Western countries, particularly countries with Muslim majority or large minority like India should define and confront it at different levels.

6. Could elites and leaders of Muslim majority countries meet their development needs by co-operative and progressive openness?

7. Could they engage in fruitful cooperation with the West in developing green energy, including nuclear based ones without posing a threat to the West?

8. Another panel may concentrate on socio-politico-economic Justice in the context of rethinking political development focusing on the emerging world.

Expected Format, Content, and Output: The expected format is a two-day workshop to be held at Rollins College, Winter Park, Florida. The workshop will consist of six to eight panels (6/8 x 3 paper-givers), with one discussant and one chair per panel. Nobel Laureate Dr. Muhammad Yunus has been invited to inaugurate the Workshop as Chief Guest. Dr. Zillur R. Khan, Chair of RC 37 of International Political Science Association and Professor Dr. Oxana Gaman-Golutvina, President of Russian Political Science Association and Member RC 2/IPSA will serve as Keynote Speakers addressing the need of rethinking the role of leadership in transforming development into a continuous search for Justice and freedom for common good. Hosting the Workshop will be Dr. Robert Moore, Chairman of International Affairs of Rollins College, who will preside over the inaugural session The results of the workshop will be communicated within the International Political Science Association (IPSA) and wider academic communities (as well as outside it to practitioners and policy-makers) via the subsequent publication of an edited book. Following the workshop, an edited book prospectus will be sent to leading academic publishers that have published books either focusing on a similar topic or employing a compatible theoretical approach, such as Cambridge University Press, Cornell University Press, Duke University Press and McGill-Queen’s University Press. Commercial peer-reviewed presses, such as Oxford, Routledge, Lynne Rienner, and Palgrave Macmillan, will also be considered.

Logistics and Funding: Local costs of the meeting will be covered by the local host: providing space for the workshop, and food and accommodation for participants. Travel expenses of participants may be partially reimbursed on need basis. It is understood that in accordance with established IPSA rules, IPSA funds may only be used for contributing to the travel expenses of paper-givers on a “fair” basis taking into account special needs, not for paying honoraria.

Scholars from Bangladesh, Brazil, Canada, China, India, Lebanon, Pakistan, Qatar, Russia, and USA are expected to participate in the workshop. Abstract of paper/panel submission deadline is May 1, 2011.

Distinguished Participants:

1. Prof. Sushma Yadav Professor of Public Policy & Governance & Chair Professor, Dr. B.R. Ambedkar Chair In Social Justice Indian Institute of Public Administration I.P. Estate, Ring Road, New Delhi - 110 002 (O)011-2346 8337, (Tele-fax)011-23766396 (M) 09810074667

2. John Higley Professor of Government & Sociology Jack S. Blanton Chair in Australian Studies Director, Center for Australian & New Zealand Studies The University of Texas at Austin Chair, IPSA Research Committee on Political Elites

3. Theodore P. Wright, Jr., Professor Emeritus, the State University of New York at Albany, New York, USA

4. Oxana Gaman-Golutvina Chair, Department of Comparative Politics MGIMO-University, Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Russia, Chairman of Scientific Council; President, Russian Political Science Association, Russian Federation

5. Rounaq Jahan, Professor of Political Science and South Asian Studies Columbia University, New York, USA

6. Shelley Feldman, Professor, Development Sociology Director, Feminist, Gender and Sexuality Studies Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853, USA

7. Robert Wirsing, Professor of Political Science, Georgetown University, Washington, D.C., USA

14Mar 2011

IPSA Workshop Inaugural Session

_MG_2656.jpg (Dr. Zillur R. Khan presiding; on his right is Dr. M. K. Alamgir and on his left is Dr. Hossain Zillur Rahman and Dr. Zaidi Sattar and Mr. Enam Ahmed Chowdhury).

_MG_2574.jpg (Finance Minister A.M.A. Muhith inaugurating the IPSA Workshop; on his right is Dr. Zillur R. Khan and on his left is Dr. Ahsan H. Mansur and Dr. Zaidi Sattar).

_MG_2665.jpg (Dr. Zillur R. Khan making his address; on his left is Dr. Zaidi Sattar and on his right is Dr. Amirul Islam).

_MG_2654.jpg (Dr. Shelly Feldman making comments at the last session presided by Dr. Zillur R. Khan, Chair, RC37, IPSA).

05Jan 2011

Reception for Dhaka IPSA Workshop Participants

International Political Science Workshop ,Dhaka Jan 5, 2010International Political Science Workshop ,Dhaka Jan 5, 2010International Political Science Workshop ,Dhaka Jan 5, 2010International Political Science Workshop ,Dhaka Jan 5, 2010

09Dec 2010

RC 37 Russian Rep elected to RPSA Board. IPSA Workshop Co-Sponsor elected President of RPSA

__RPSA Conference: RC37 Member elected to the Board __ On November 25, Russian Political Science Association held a regular conference in Moscow to hear reports and elect its new officers. Dr. Yan Vaslavskiy, member of RC37 representing Russia (MGIMO-University, Moscow), was elected as Board Member of the Association responsible for PR.

At the conference, President of RPSA, professor at the Chair of Comparative Politics at MGIMO-University (Moscow) Olga Malinova presented a report on the work of the Association in 2008-2010. Mikhail Ilyin, Honorary President of RPSA, professor at the Chair of Comparative Politics at MGIMO-University, and IPSA Executive Committee member, reported on recent IPSA activities. Alexander Nikitin, also Honorary President of RPSA, professor at the Chair of Political Theory at MGIMO-University, Chair of the RPSA Council on International Cooperation, presented a report on the work of the Council.

Conference participants approved a new edition of RPSA Charter and elected new officers to fill in the posts at the Association’s governing bodies. Professor Oxana Gaman-Golutvina, Head of Chair of Comparative Politics at MGIMO-University, was unanimously elected as RPSA’s new President. Olga Malinova resigned from her post in advance, shortly before the end of her term in a month’s time, in order to synchronize the serving terms for the Association’s President and Board.

Besides, RPSA’s new Board members were elected, with a sphere of responsibility assigned to each of the members. The length of the term for the newly-elected President and Board is three years.

At his new post of RPSA Board Member, Dr. Yan Vaslavskiy, responsible for PR, will concentrate on promoting RPSA and its activities in the Russian and foreign media, as well as on working with public bodies and NGO’s, universities, other organizations, and general public. Besides, RPSA’s cooperation with different IPSA RC’s will intensify, with RC37 definitely

07Dec 2010

Joint IPSA Workshop on Rethinking Political Development: Multifaceted role of Elites, Nov 7-8, 2011

Announcement__ International Political Science Association (IPSA) Joint Workshop on Rethinking Political Development: Multifaceted Role of Elites and Transforming Leadership to be held on November 7-8, 2011 in Winter Park (near Orlando), Florida, USA__ Workshop Organizers: Professor Dr. Zillur R. Khan and Dr. Yan Vaslavskiy, respectively Chair and Member, IPSA/RC 37: Rethinking Political Development. Zillur R. Khan is Professor Emeritus, University of Wisconsin and Adjunct Professor, Rollins College, U.S.A. and Dr.Yan Vaslavskiy is Deputy Head of Events at Global Policy Forum, Russian Federation and Board member, Russian Political Science Association. Co-organizers from IPSA/RC 2: Political Elites are Professor Dr. Oxana Gaman-Golutvina, Chair of the Department of Comparative Politics, MGIMO-University, Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Russia; Chairman of Scientific Council; President of Russian Political Science Association, and Professor J. Higley, Professor of Political Science, University of Texas, respectively Member and Chair of IPSA/RC 2 Local Host and Organizer is Professor Robert Moore, Chair, International Affairs, Rollins College, Florida, USA __Title: Rethinking Political Development: Multifaceted Role of Elites and Transforming Leadership

Proposed Dates:   November 7-8, 2011

Deadline for Submission of Panel/Paper Proposal with Abstracts: April 1, 2011 Rationale for the Workshop: The workshop will bring together international scholars to explore myriad roles of leaders and elites in enhancing the capacity for effective governance by rethinking political development from different perspectives. In constructing or reconstructing theories of leadership, elites and institutions for political development participants will examine, analyze and critique various issues of policy making and implementation facing the rapidly changing and adjusting political communities, particularly in emerging BRIC and Indonesia, Malaysia, South Africa and Turkey, among others. Reorienting the whole concept of development to better the quality of life in an uncertain world should be a challenge-intellectual, political, socio-economic and ideological-for both scholars and practitioners of Political Science and related fields participating in this workshop.

Panels will range from rethinking theories of leadership and elites in political development, to strategies and tactics for providing a common ground for negotiated settlement of controversial public policy goals and methods of their implementation, to resolving issues of identity, diversity and national security in evolving processes of globalization with widening gaps in benefits, particularly for the emerging countries from the Middle East to South-South East Asia to Far East, to dilemmas of freedom and security, to securing justice as basic fairness in inter-ethnic, inter-ideological and inter-state relations, to finally pushing the limits of political development to create a new MAP, i.e., Mutually Assured Peace, replacing MAD, i.e., Mutually Assured Destruction with SANE, i.e., Serve Appropriate Needs Effectively at whatever level. Could the unresolved legacies of local and regional conflicts in the globalizing process redefine sovereignty itself as seemingly happening in politico-economic experimentation in America, Europe, India and Russia? Following are some suggested panels: 1. How elites and leaders could strike a balance between localism and nationalism to alleviate poverty. 2. Regional cooperation as a socio-political-economic strategy to transform the state-society relations to a new model of a positive national sovereignty---the sovereignty of the citizen and the service-provider character of state institutions. 3. The extent to which a pragmatic approach to ideological controversies over detached vis-à-vis inclusive secularism with a special emphasis on religious tolerance can shape the relationships between Western and Islamic World. 4. Defining the multifaceted role of elites and leaders in raising the consciousness of stake holders to a level at which coordinated action to resolve burning problems can happen, replacing counteractive rhetoric, against the backdrop of demographic, ecological and energy crises being faced by mostly developing countries 5. A possible fifth panel may take up terrorism and how elites and leaders in Western and non-Western countries, particularly countries with Muslim majority or large minority like India should define and confront it at different levels. 6. Could elites and leaders of Muslim majority countries meet their development needs by co-operative and progressive openness? 7. Could they engage in fruitful cooperation with the West in developing green energy, including nuclear based ones without posing a threat to the West? 8. Another panel may concentrate on socio-politico-economic Justice in the context of rethinking political development focusing on the emerging world.

Expected Format, Content, and Output: The expected format is a two-day workshop to be held at Rollins College, Winter Park, Florida. The workshop will consist of six to eight panels (6/8 x 3 paper-givers), with one discussant and one chair per panel. Nobel Laureate Dr. Muhammad Yunus has been invited to inaugurate the Workshop as Chief Guest. Dr. Zillur R. Khan, Chair of RC 37 of International Political Science Association and Professor Dr. Oxana Gaman-Golutvina, President of Russian Political Science Association and Member RC 2/IPSA will serve as Keynote Speakers addressing the need of rethinking the role of leadership in transforming development into a continuous search for Justice and freedom for common good. Hosting the Workshop will be Dr. Robert Moore, Chairman of International Affairs of Rollins College, who will preside over the inaugural session The results of the workshop will be communicated within the International Political Science Association (IPSA) and wider academic communities (as well as outside it to practitioners and policy-makers) via the subsequent publication of an edited book. Following the workshop, an edited book prospectus will be sent to leading academic publishers that have published books either focusing on a similar topic or employing a compatible theoretical approach, such as Cambridge University Press, Cornell University Press, Duke University Press and McGill-Queen’s University Press. Commercial peer-reviewed presses, such as Oxford, Routledge, Lynne Rienner, and Palgrave Macmillan, will also be considered.

Logistics and Funding: Local costs of the meeting will be covered by the local host: providing space for the workshop, and food and accommodation for participants. Travel expenses of participants may be partially reimbursed on need basis. It is understood that in accordance with established IPSA rules, IPSA funds may only be used for contributing to the travel expenses of paper-givers on a “fair” basis taking into account special needs, not for paying honorarium.

Scholars from Bangladesh, Brazil, Canada, China, India, Lebanon, Pakistan, Qatar, Russia, and USA are expected to participate in the workshop. Abstract of paper/panel submission deadline is April 1, 2011.

10May 2010

RC 37/IPSA Objectives, Office Bearers and Recent Activities

RETHINKING SECURITY, SOVEREIGNTY AND JUSTICE A DAY-LONG WORKSHOP SPONSORED BY INTERNATIONAL POLITICAL SCIENCE ASSOCIATION Organized by IPSA Research Committee (RC 37) on Rethinking Political Development, and Hosted by Policy Research Institute of Bangladesh AT POLICY RESEARCH INSTITUTE DHAKA, BANGLADESH JANUARY 5, 2010

9:30 AM-10:30 AM: INAUGURAL SESSION Moderator: Dr. Ahsan Mansur, Executive Director, Policy Research Institute of Bangladesh Chief Guest: Honorable A. M. A. Muhith, M.P., Finance Minister, People’s Republic of Bangladesh Welcome Remarks: Dr. Zaidi Sattar, Chairman, Policy Research Institute of Bangladesh Keynote Speakers: Professor Zillur R. Khan, Professor Emeritus, University of Wisconsin, U.S.A. & Chair, RC 37/IPSA, “Political Development from the Perspective of Justice and freedom in Institution Building and Leadership Forming Processes”. Dr. Sadiq Ahmed, Vice Chairman, Policy Research Institute of Bangladesh, “Poverty, Conflict and Regional Cooperation in South Asia” Tea/Coffee Break 10: 45 AM—12: 10 PM—Session I: Democratization, Secularism and Globalization Moderator: Professor Zillur R. Khan, Professor Emeritus, University of Wisconsin, USA, and Chair, RC 37/IPSA Presenters: Professor Shelley Feldman, Professor of Development Sociology, Cornell University, USA, “Constructing States and Citizens: Partition as a Social Project”. Professor Mark Farha, Visiting Assistant Professor of Middle Eastern Politics, Georgetown University, School Of Foreign Service, Doha, Qatar, “Variant Permutations of Secularism: Consociational, Communal and Coercive” . Ambassador Professor Abdul Momen, Bangladesh Representative at the Permanent Mission of Bangladesh at the United Nations Organization, New York, “Democratization: The Greatest Strategy for Politico-Economic Development”. Professor Shushma Yadav, Dr. Ambedkar Chair, IIPA, India, “Social Justice and Human Rights: Rethinking State Sovereignty in a Globalized World”. Discussants: Professor Ali Riaz, Department of Politics and Government, Illinois State University, USA Professor Mahfuz Choudhury, Political Science Department, Chittagong University, Bangladesh Tea/Coffee Break 12:20 PM—1:50 PM—Session II: Issue of Sovereignty-Cum-Security and International Cooperation Moderator: Dr. Mizanur Rahman Shelley, Chairman, Center for Development Research Bangladesh Chief Guest: Dr. Mashiur Rahman, Advisor to the Prime Minister of Bangladesh Presenters: Professor Yan Vaslavsky, Senior Lecturer, Deputy Head of Research Policy Dept., MGIMO-University, Moscow, Russia, “Emerging Nations: Russian Comparative Perspective on Problems of Sovereignty and New Forms of Stateness in Kosovo, Abkhazia, and South Ossetia”. MS. Amna Yousaf Khokhar, Research Assistant, International Relations, Kinnaird College for Women, Lahore, Pakistan, “Enlightened Moderation and Its Effectiveness in Containing Terrorism”. Professor Rumki Basu, Head, Department of Political Science, Jamia Millia University, New Delhi, India, "Glocalization & Security in South Asia: Reaping the Peace Dividend from a Human Rights Perspective." Lt. General (Retd.), Aminul Karim, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, “Status of Taiwan: Ways Forward” Discussants: Ambassador Farouk Sobhan, President, Bangladesh Enterprise Institute Ambassador Rashed Ahmed Choudhury, Frm. UN Administrator of Kosovo and Ambassador for Bangladesh in Japan Ambassador Dr. Afsarul Qader, Vice President, BEI

Lunch Break: 1:50 PM –2:50 PM

3:00 PM—4:30 PM Session III: Justice as the Crucial Link Connecting Security, Freedoms and Rights Moderator: Professor Rama Datta, North Carolina State University, USA Chief Guest: Dr. Mashiur Rahman, Economic Affairs Advisor to the Prime Minister of Bangladesh Special Guest: Professor Rounaq Jahan, Columbia University, USA Presenters: Professor Ali Riaz, Department of Politics and Government, Illinois State University, USA, “Security Challenges to an Emerging Nation: Bangladesh as a Case Study” Professor Promod Mishra, Delhi University, India, “Emerging Challenges to Human Security” Mr. Samier Ahsan, Research Scholar at the Mahatma Gandhi Center for Global Nonviolence at James Madison University, USA, “Jihad as an Effective Ideological Strategy for Sustainable and Peaceful Development”. Barrister Tania Amir, Secretary General, SAARC Law, “Human Security and Sovereignty in the Light of Bangladesh Constitution” Professor Sandra S. Rahman, Department of Economics and Business Admin, Framingham State College, USA, "The Globalization of Knowledge Creation and the Increasing Consequence of Shared Information." Discussants: Ambassador Harun-Ur-Rashid, Frm. Bangladesh Ambassador to Japan Professor Shelley Feldman, Professor, Department of Sociology, Cornell University, USA Tea Break: 4:30 PM—4:45 PM 4: 45 PM—6: 15 PM ---Roundtable Plenary Session: Rethinking Political Development in South Asia: “What is to be Done?” Moderator: Professor Zillur R. Khan, Chair, RC 37, International Political Science Association Chief Guest: Mr. Hossain Taufique Imam: Advisor to the Prime Minister, The People’s Republic of Bangladesh Participating Policy Practitioners and Analysts: Dr. Mohiuddin Khan Alamgir M.P, Former Minister and Current Chair, Parliamentary Standing Committee, Bangladesh Dr. Hussain Zillur Rahman, Former Advisor, Caretaker Government, Bangladesh Hasanul Huq Inu M.P, Chair, Parlimentary Committee on Post and Tele Communication, Bangladesh Mr. Enam Ahmed Choudhury, Former Chair with the rank of State Minister, Privatization Board, Government of Bangladesh Barrister M. Amir-Ul Islam, Frm. Cabinet Member, Government of Bangladesh

    Mr. Mahfuz Anam, Edior, The Daily Star, Bangladesh

8: 00 PM: Dinner-Reception at Ambassador and Mrs. Rashed Ahmed Choudhury’s in Honor of Participants